Germain Poizat : Analyse en ergonomie cognitive de l'activité collective en tennis de table

Mots clé: 
activité collective, ergonomie cognitive, cours d'action, tennis de table
Germain Poizat
Marc Durand (Rapporteur), Bernard Pavard, Jacques Saury, Carole Sève (Directrice), Jacques Theureau (Rapporteur)
Date de soutenance: 
Résumé en français: 
Résumé en anglais: 
The aim of this thesis was to characterize the process involved in the construction of collective activity and was based on the analysis of the individual activities articulation in sports interactions. We analysed the collective activity resulting from the coordination of two table tennis players’ individual activity during two types of sports interaction: competition (singles matches) and cooperation (doubles matches). To understand table tennis collective activity, we conducted three studies in accordance to the “course of action” theoretical and methological framework (Theureau, 1992, 2004, 2006). Study 1 grasped table tennis players’ individual-social activity during singles matches (competitive interaction). The results showed that the table tennis players’ activity includes an execution component (aiming to a maximal effectiveness), an exploration component (aiming to construct a model of the opponent), and a deception component (aiming to influence the opponent’s judgments). These components revealed the adressed characteristic of the table tennis players’ activity : during matches, the players attempted to construct a model of the interaction while preventing the opponent from doing the same. By using the notion of “shared context” (Salembier et Zouinar, 2004), Study 2 characterized contextual informations shared by two opponents’ during a singles match (competitive interaction) and by two partners’ during a doubles match (cooperative interaction). The results pointed various typical forms of contextual information sharing between table tennis players, and showed that mutual intelligibility is achieved by a permanent co-construction. Study 3 grasped social-individual activity, resulting from the articulation of two opponents’ individual-social activities during a singles match or the articulation of two partners’ individual-social activities during a doubles match, by using the analysis of social-individual theoretical objets. The results underlined the role of certain behaviors in the construction of the collective activity and pointed the existence of simple rules of interaction accompanying this construction. The general discussion summarizes the contribution of these three studies concerning the knowledge of (a) table tennis collective activity, (b) collective sports activities, and (c) collective work activities. The practical contribution of this research was considered throught some proposals for the conception of training tools in table tennis.
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